CBD Oil – How is it made?
Cannabidiol, or CBD oil, is a derivative of the hemp plant that is gaining in popularity as a treatment for a broad range of conditions and ailments. CBD is the component of hemp that has medical properties. It doesn’t contain the THC portion of the plant that causes the characteristic “high.” The secret to making CBD oil from hemp starts with the extraction process.
Extraction Methods Used to Make CBD Oil
There are multiple CBD extraction methods used to make CBD oil, some of which are much more common. Some of the methods used most frequently today include:
Carbon Dioxide Extraction – This method uses CO2 in a liquid state to separate the oil from the plant material. During the process, the CO2 undergoes exposure to high pressure and very low temperatures via a series of chambers and pumps, producing oil that contains high concentrations of CBD. This process is especially beneficial for producing oil with specific CBD concentrations.
Steam Distillation – This process involves placing the hemp plant into a glass flask with an inlet that carries the steam from boiling water upward to the plant. The steam separates the oil vapors which contain CBD. The vapors collect in a tube and are then condensed into oil and water. Finally, the oil and water mixture undergo a distillation process to extract the CBD oil.
Like the CO2 extraction process, steam distillation is also used for extracting essential oil. However, it lacks the precision and control provided by the previous method.
Solvent Extraction – This extraction method is very similar to steam distillation except that a solvent replaces the water. The process produces a mixture of CBD oil and the solvent. Once the solvent evaporates, it leaves pure CBD oil behind. While this is a more efficient process than steam distillation, the hydrocarbons used can leave behind a toxic residue. Natural solvents are a safer option with one drawback. They might cause an unpleasant taste when used in vape oils or edibles. Those products made using natural solvents also have a lower concentration of CBD oil.
While each CBD oil extraction method has its pros and cons, CO2 extraction is the most efficient. It produces oils with the highest concentration of CBD and is easier to control the concentration. The biggest drawback to this method is the expense. That means you will get a higher quality product, but you will probably pay more for it.
Final Products of Extraction
CBD oil comes from the stalks, leaves, and flowers of the Hemp plant. The resulting oil from each extraction method is referred to as CBD “crude oil.” Initially, crude oil contained about 4 percent CBD. Today’s most popular methods produce oil with a range of 10 percent to 25 percent CBD. Crude CBD oil contains traces of THC and other components of the hemp plant.
1. CBD Distillate is purer than crude oil, but not as pure as CBD isolates. On average, distillate contains about 80 percent CBD (although this can vary greatly), along with the terpenes, flavonoids, and wider range of cannabanoids both major and minor cannabanoids that have a range of proposed health benefits.
2. CBD Isolates – Isolate is CBD oil that undergoes an additional purification process. Isolate is a white, flavorless powder that only contains CBD. These products have no THC in them, and they are both flavorless and odorless.
3. Full-Spectrum Oil – Full-spectrum CBD oil contains other cannabinoids in addition to the CBD. THC is still present, although usually in residual amounts that make it legal. The oil also contains other beneficial elements from the plants, including amino acids and terpenes. Some people claim that full-spectrum oil has an “entourage effect” due to the various components of the plant in the oil. Others prefer CBD isolates with no trace of THC.
4. Broad-Spectrum Oil – Broad-spectrum is very similar to full-spectrum oil but without the THC. Full-spectrum oil goes through an additional process called liquid chromatography which removes the THC while leaving the other cannabinoids intact.
5. Nano CBD Oil – Nano hemp oil is a new type of isolate that results in a purer product. It removes the terpenes using an additional CO2 extraction process. The additional process removes toxins and impurities without leaving any chemicals behind. The result is a CBD oil that is as pure as any you can buy. The benefits include faster and more potent absorption into your blood system at higher concentrations.
Additional reading: How Long Does it Take For CBD Oil to Take Effect in Your Body?
How Are Different Forms of CBD Oil Used?
All forms of CBD oil derived by various extraction methods are used in a broad range of products. CBD oil might be mixed with carrier oils to create tinctures or with other ingredients to make CBD gummies. CBD oil is added into recipes to make CBD edibles, such as brownies, mints, cookies, or candy. CBD capsules and vape oils might be combined with other types of oils or other ingredients that enhance its taste. It’s also added to essential oils, moisturizers, and waxes to create topicals.
Choosing CBD Oil Products
Different types of CBD oil products are best for different conditions. Always check the label to see which extraction process was used to determine which type contains the right oil for your needs. Each product also contains a dosage chart based on your body weight. Most people have to adjust their dosage up or down to get the best results. The type of product and its use will help determine the right time to use it.
- Edibles, Capsules, and Powders – CBD oil products taken orally take longer to act, but they have longer-lasting effects once they do. Expect to feel the effects within 30 to 90 minutes after ingesting them.
- Sublingual – Products administered under your tongue bypass the digestive system, making them faster-acting. Most begin to act within five to 20 minutes.
- Vapes – Inhaling CBD through vape pens give you the fastest effects. While the effects start within a few minutes, they only last for a few hours.
- Lotions, Creams, and Balms – Topicals are usually best for treating specific areas. Apply the product directly to the affected area for fast relief that lasts for several hours.
Additional reading: What Does CBD Oil Taste Like?
The growing popularity of CBD oil has resulted in a broad range of products available to choose from. Understanding more about the CBD oil extraction processes and the different types of oil produced will help you choose products that benefit you.
Other articles: Business Inside – What is CBD Oil & Why is it so expensive?